Quizes and Exams
Class Projects and Assignments That are Due before the Final
Outdoor Sign Project
It's an outdoor sign for Click here for all the details and materials. You must fulfill the following five requirments:
- Create a PMS color scheme
- Create a composition involving the product or a portion of the product in the design
- Choose a typestyle
- Create a clever idea that will serve as an example of good outdoor advertising design (remember that less is more).
- You must turn in a hard copy on 8.5 x 11 inch paper landscape.
Look & Feel Project: Logo for Video Project
This is the name of the company for which you must prepare a logo. However, the big challenge is to create an icon that evokes one's Life Story. What should it be? Suggestion: Look at vintage wood cuts or engravings for inspiration.
You must fulfill the following four requirements
- Create a PMS color scheme
- Choose and set a typesyle and create a logotype
- Create or design an icon to accompany the logotype (see example above)
- You must turn in the logo in both color and black and white formats, and they can be on an 8.5 x 11 inch page.
The Kindergarten Ad
Click here for the photo library from which you will choose your photo.
Your assignment is to create an ad promoting kindergarten enrollment. Your headline must be of few words and evoke the importance of enrolling your child in kindergarten. The call to action tagline at the bottom of the ad is "Log on to www.dubuqueschools.net/kindergarten to register online." Finally it must include the logo from the Dubuque Community Schools available here.
You must fulfill the following four requirements
- Choose and set a typesyle
- Create the ad in Photoshop for a single page printout.
- You can turn in a color version or a black and white version or preferably both.
The Music School Ad
You must prepare an ad, 8.5 x 11 inches page size 200 dpi for the Northeast Iowa School of Music (NISOM), a Dubuque based school of music. The concept is simple and straight forward. The school wants to promote children enrollments in their music programs. The ads are squarely aimed at parents of children in third and fourth grades. You must design the ad in color, however the likelyhood is that it will be published in black and white. You must write the header, brief copy extolling the virtues of music for students, and assemble the ad in Photoshop.
Click here for the Photo Library. Click on the logo above to download the layered source file. Check NISOM's website for information and copy for the ad.
You must fulfill the following three requirements
- Choose and set a typesyle
- Create the ad in Photoshop for a single page printout.
- You will turn in a color version (if possible and you have access to a color printer) and a black and white version (mandatory)
||When it's test time, the link above will automatically download your exam. You must complete this on your own with no collaboration with other students in the class. I will know if you copy from one another, and the risk is too great. You will download the exam first to your personal media drive or what have you. You then open it in Microsoft Word and complete the exam, saving frequently. Then rename the completed exam per instructions on the top of the first page of the exam itself. Send the test back to the instructor via the following e-mail address: email@example.com. Do not send anything to me via the Clarke e-mail network. Each question is worth 10 points. There are no bonus questions, and you must answer all questions to the best of your ability.
|Textbooks for this class
and why you need them...
The Seven Essentials of Graphic Design
This is the textbook we will be using in this class. The 7 Essentials of Graphic Design by Allison Goodman
At the conclusion of this course, you will know and be able to recite on demand these seven essentials of graphic design
It is a book that will be an excellent reference and important part of your resource library as you embark on your career as a professional communications person. The lessons learned in this book will last your lifetime.
For the next eight weeks we read a chapter from this book every week and take some time in class to discuss that chapter.
Link to Course Projects and Bibliography
Combining Craft and Theory:
It has been the instructor's experience that many communications people, regardless of where they ply their trade (industry, education, consultancy, big business, small business), must have "trade skills." That means in our profession layout and design skills, advertising production skills, and logistics management skills. This is especially true today because of technology. Because many of the tasks that were to exclusive domain of the tradesman (prepress for example) can be rendered on a computer in a desktop publishing program. This means that the communications professional in a small (and even several large businesses) does not necessarily delegate or defer design and productions decisions, but often plunges in and does the annual report themselves using PhotoShop and Quark Xpress.
In this class you will learn equal amounts craft and theory. But we have only 8 weeks, and you must attend every class so as not to be left behind. We will move very fast because we have a lot to learn and a lot to do.
Gary Olsen, Instructor
has been designed with the Communication Department’s overarching objectives as
a basis for transferring knowledge to our students on the topic of Advertising
Design and Production.
#1 Students will gain knowledge
of the latest in evolving theoretical and practical applications in the
communication field utilizing various
resources and methods of inquiry.
#2 Students will grow
intellectually (through a strong liberal arts base) in their oral and written communication
and critical thinking skills.
# 3 Students will
become aware of the ethical and spiritual implications of communication on a diverse and global level.
#4 Students will be knowledgeable of the latest
in technology, software applications, and visual comm. Skills with the ability
to demonstrate the skills in using technology.
following “course matrix” outlines the basic objectives and learning goals of
Type of Outcome
V=value or evaluation
of Total Grade
What Dept. Objectives are Met
will demonstrate an adequate (at least 70 percent of assigned materials,
discussions, hands-on experiences and core components of the course)
understanding of the theoretical foundations of advertising design and
Students will be instructed in the nomenclature
and common standards and practices of advertising design and production. The information is distributed through
lecture and web-based instructional materials.
A mid-term and a final exam will be the primary
assessment methods. Each exam has 10 questions each worth 10 points. Students must score a grade of 70 or above
to attain a passing grade. There are
further evaluations that are based on observations by the instructor of
students in class. The instructor will determine:
· The level
of student engagement in discussion
· A student’s
ability to work collaboratively with others
· Display individual creativity
· Show resourcefulness and initiative
· Meet or beat required project deadlines
Each is worth a point (they represent a total of
five points that will be added to cumulative test scores and can serve to
raise a grade.
1, 2, 4
Students learn “the process of discovery” which is
a systematic, step-by-step procedure of collecting important intelligence,
data and materials and applying them to the client’s marketing goals.
.Through a series of lectures and instructor lead
discussions and demonstrations we illustrate the steps students can adapt to
almost any advertising project.
K, S, V
1, 2, 3, 4
Students learn how to work together in a
collaborative team to create a multimedia advertising package for a new
Students are divided into groups by “recruiters”
who have been selected by the instructor to divide the students into two
equal teams or companies.
The instructor will determine individual mastery
of skills through subjective assessment of the quality of students’ work on
the projects they turn in, and the variety of theoretical and intellectual skills
applied to the process.
K, S, V
Understand the ethical standards and practices of advertising
Students are required to do research on a
particular market segment and determine the legal pitfalls, obligations and
legislation affecting the sales of this product in various jurisdictions
throughout the United
States. Students must search for and find
the most useful and credible sources for information. They must turn in a paper of less than 1200
Instructor evaluation. The assignment’s point value is 5 points.
K, S, V
1, 2, 3
Class Attendance is Mandatory: You may lose up to 2.5% of your final
grade for each unexcused absence. In case of sickness, a medical report is
required. You are supposed to come to class on time. Arriving late at lectures
is absolutely not permitted and will adversely affect your grade. The door to
the classroom will be locked at the moment the class begins.
Deadlines: Assignments are due at the start of the class on the
deadline day unless otherwise scheduled by the instructor.
Readings: All text-based material
for this course is on the course website.
Plagiarism: Passing off the ideas or words of another as one's own is
called plagiarism. It is unethical. It is also illegal, and actionable
according to copyright laws. Clarke
College is intolerant of
plagiarism. Penalties included suspension or expulsion.
Here's the class and completed assignment list
Project 1 Logo
Project 2 Ad Layout
The Process of Discovery: The Importance of Research and How to Systematically
Approach a New Design Project
Learning Objectives of this Class:
Students will know the characteristics of two advertising strategies,
Push and Pull Marketing, and how it applies to the marketing and advertising
plan. Students will also be able to identify and categorize at least three
examples of each (push vs. pull) advertising strategy.
You are assigned the
responsibility of formulating an advertising campaign. Every product should
have a distinctive look and feel. Perhaps your product is too new with no
legacy or brand recognition to evoke recognition among consumers. If that’s the
case, then it’s your job to invent a look and feel. What information do you
need to know to determine look and feel?
Let’s compile a list…
Features and Benefits
- What are the Product’s Features?
- What are the Product’s Benefits?
- What are the Tangibles (the product’s physical
- What are the Intangibles (the product’s
perceived value in the marketplace)?
What’s the Marketing Plan? When is it appropriate to use a Push or Pull advertising strategy?
When can you use both?
Pull advertising is geared to draw visitors to your store, a dealership, or a website
when they are actively seeking your product or service. Examples of pull
advertising include catalogs, direct mail, directory listings, yellow page ads,
advertising in trade journals that appear to a specific group of customers, and
shopping portals on the Internet such as mySimon and DealTime.
In the retail marketplace, complex
products such as computers, home entertainment systems and components, and
automobiles benefit from a pull marketing approach. The dealer, for example, becomes the closer
of the sale by offering help to the consumer’s decision making process. Also
the store or sales agent can offer value adds such as service or extended
One of the most effective pull advertising strategies is the trade show.
Some products, such as consumer electronics, building and home
improvement products, benefit from a bazaar or open market environment where
consumers or wholesale distributors can convene to “see what’s out there.” Essentially, it puts everyone with similar
interests and a product to sell those interests in one place at one time. And
the pull marketing strategy is the “trade show booth.” For four days in say, Las
Vegas, Nevada, at the Las Vegas Convention Center, all the consumer
electronics companies convene annually.
The objective is to pull people into your booth, your display, your
exhibit, your demonstration, your event. Once they are there, it’s your sale to
win or lose.
The objective of pull
advertising is to pull people who are already looking for your product, your
solution, or your service into your store, your dealership, or your website,
and once there, help the customer with their buying decision and close the
Push advertising refers to all efforts to get the word out to an entire
group of potential customers in order to hit the few that may be currently
interested in your product or service. This is more commonly referred to as
Many products that lend
themselves to push advertising are consumables, foods, beverages, cleaning and
personal care products. Most traditional offline advertising media include mass
circulation publications, newspapers, magazines, outdoor advertising
(billboards), transit advertising, newspapers, television and radio. However, almost all media, even television,
has evolved to appeal to narrower and more specific audience groups. The best example of this is cable television
with specific channels for specific interests.
The objective of push advertising is
to push the brand, the product’s identity, thereby creating a lasting memory,
an impression in the consumer’s mind.
What products are best
served by Pull Advertising?
What products are best
served by Push Advertising?
Name some examples of
products that uses both strategies:
Process of Discovery (Continued)
We continue the process of discovery as
we systematically approach our advertising design project…
Learning Objectives of this Class: Students will
learn the “five inquisitive techniques” a creative can apply to a proposed
project to develop an effective advertising strategy.
The Five Inquisitive Techniques:
As you approach an advertising client
for the first time, the process of discovery actually begins. Certainly you will do thorough research on
clients before you meet with them, however, it will only serve you up to a
point and likely only help you make a good first impression. Nothing can really prepare you for what the
client really wants until you obtain answers to the following five subject
What does our product look like?
- Is it unique among similar products in the
- Is it new to the market, or is the market so
totally new that it’s the only product in it for now?
- If it is not new to the marketplace, how is it
- What does the competition look like?
- Does it have a unique shape, color scheme? Is
the product itself its own trademark?
- Is this a seasonal product?
- Is this a regional product?
What does the packaging look like?
- Where can it be found in the retail store?
- If it’s a consumer product, what similar
products share shelf space in the retail store?
- Is there a consumer expectation of what your
product must look like, and what does the competition look like?
What is your product’s legacy?
- What is your reputation in the marketplace?
- How long have your been in business and in this
- How is your company (not your product
necessarily) perceived in the marketplace?
- Among your competition, who has the best
reputation and why?
How long has this particular product been
- What have past ad campaigns looked like?
- What was successful and what was not?
- If there is no legacy, what are the public’s
perceptions and expectations of not necessarily your product but any
product in this marketplace?
Who is the target audience?
Who is the primary demographic or target market?
Is there competition? If so, how is market share divided among
Secondary Market… who is a potentially untapped resource that can
grow our sales if we appeal to them?
Does it transcend cultural or gender lines?
The Process of Discovery (Continued)
Learning Objectives of this Class: This part of
the process of discovery deals with choosing the correct combination of media,
or as it’s more commonly referred to in advertising as the “media mix.” Students will about audience targeting and
the differences between Intrusive and Non-intrusive forms of advertising. This
fundamental approach to advertising strategies influences everything from ad
content to graphic choices.
What media are in our mix?
We learn the advantages
Mass media vs. Targeted Media
Intrusive vs. Non-intrusive Advertising
The task of every
advertising team is to develop an ad that will attract attention and motivate
the viewer to think or act a way that is favorable to the product.
There are two advertising
design strategies: Intrusive and Non-intrusive.
For example: Publications
such as Time Magazine and USA Today are mass marketed to a broad audience. People
read these publications for news and not for the advertising. Consequently,
competition to capture the reader's attention among the pages of such
publications is strong. A copywriter and designer must quickly capture
the reader's attention, often in some provocative way. Your ad is
"intruding" in their news and feature space.
On the other hand, a
publication which is targeted to a specific group, such computer enthusiasts,
actually welcomes advertising as a source of valuable information, almost as
important as the news and features contained in the publication. Thus, it is
logical to assume that ads can contain much more information to help readers
make purchasing decisions. However, such publications are often filled
with provocative advertising among what appears to be highly competitive
advertisers. Particularly if there is price competition among a product
category (catalogers for example), ads become highly detailed price listings.
Bottom line, of course, is they work among a classification of readers who are
Excellent examples of
non-intrusive advertising can be found in magazines such as Sports Afield,
Women's Day, InfoWorld, PC Magazine and any number of photography or camera
In some cases,
advertising is disguised as editorial content. Product roundups, buyer’s
guides, the “year in gear” editions of trade publications and product placement
in Web search engines or online product reviews can be examples of advertising
disguised as objective editorial content.
Daily Newspapers can
contain both intrusive and non-intrusive advertising. Advertising
supplements for the local food store, filled with coupons and specials, are
non-intrusive to the household manager looking to save on groceries and home
cleaning products. On the other hand, a full page ad for the BMW X-3 in
the middle of the Sports Section, is most certainly intrusive. The automobile
dealer display ads in the automotive section of the classifieds are
non-intrusive among car shoppers who are often attracted to such sections when
looking for a bargain.
The term “intrusive” when
it comes to advertising should not be construed as a negative. The most effective advertising is almost
always intrusive… the well-crafted message, the provocative image, the surprise
at the turn of a page or the click of a mouse that creates a lasting memory or
image in the consumer’s mind is always something the viewer or reader didn’t
expect to see as they were reading their paper, browsing the web or viewing
their morning TV news show.
Applying these terms,
intrusive and non-intrusive, in our process of discovery will help us to
quickly determine our advertising campaign’s best overall look and feel.
Legislation and Obligations
- Warning labels
- Uses and Permissions
- Certificates and Regulatory Obligations
Can you name some
products that must contain information legislated by governments either federal
The Process of Discovery (Continued)
Creative Team Organization: Assigning Responsibilities and Matching
Talent with Tasks
Learning Objectives of this Class:
Advertising campaigns are perfect examples of creative collaboration and
teamwork. Students will learn the basic roles of six key members of a creative
team: The project manager, the production manager, the creative director, the
graphic designer, the photographer/illustrator, and the copy writer. Depending
on the size and scope of the project, there can be additional key staff. Additional staff can include copy editors,
staff accountants, creative and production directors, graphic designers and
appropriate clerical and office support. Conversely, there can be less, and
roles and responsibilities can be combined as in a small creative firm.
Certain tasks can be
in-sourced or out-sourced depending on the budget and staff size. Regardless
of who actually does the tasks, the tasks must be accomplished because each is
critical to the success of the outcome.
The Importance of Research
As a rule, the more successful a campaign, the
more thorough the research was behind it.
For example, research is can
be accomplished a number of ways by a number of people. Researchers assess
market size and strength as well as measure a particular advertising message’s
effectiveness in the market. Most advertising firms today are first and
foremost research firms. Their entire
strategy is based on “the numbers.” Investments
are too large and risks to great for a marketing or creative team to rely on
guts, chances or hunches. That doesn’t mean there isn’t a little creative risk
taking. But risks are often calculated.
Media Companies vs. Creative Firms
In small to medium markets,
media companies offer in-house creative services. This is especially useful to
small businesses that may not be able to afford a creative firm to produce and
place their advertising. In such cases a small market newspaper, television or
radio station will have account executives who work with businesses to create a
campaign. In this case, a creative on the staff of the media company will work
directly with the company seeking to advertise or with the account executive to
produce the message and the advertisement.
However, as businesses, products
and services seek to reach larger more sophisticated markets, it becomes
necessary to take a strategic and collaborative approach to creativity and
production tasks. Not only is thorough
research important to the process, but special expertise must be brought to
bear on the project to be more effective in order for the campaign to reach its
intended goals. In such collaborations, creative directors and project managers
can leverage special services and talents depending on budget.
The Creative Team
team must divide up responsibilities along areas of expertise. A Project
Manager as well as other key appointments to handle the group's obligations and
Manages the entire project.
Works directly with the client.
Serves as a communication facilitator between the client and the team.
Manages the finances of the project, collaborates with the client and
the team to establish a budget.
Manages the project’s design document that contains the contract and
schedule of project deliverables.
Works with the team
and production companies that will be contracted to apply the design to the
various media forms. These companies
trade show and retail space display fabricators
outdoor advertising firms
audio or video production houses
specialty advertising firms (imprinted sportswear, unique product
manufacturers and imprinters)
The Creative Director is most typically the senior
designer and the most experienced designer on the team. The Creative Director
gives work direction to the Graphic Design Team. The Creative Director has the
ability to work well with the creative team and the executive account managers. The Creative Director is responsible for the
overall look and feel of the project. He or she may or may not be hands-on
depending on the size and scope of the client and project.
The Graphic Designer is the team’s visualizer. The
Graphic Designer is hands-on responsible for giving substance to the project’s
look and feel. The Graphic Designer has
strong visual talents, from illustrative to layout. Depending on the size and
sophistication of the project, there may be more than one graphic designer.
There may also be an animator, for example. There may be a graphic designer who
specializes in television, print, or outdoor advertising.
Almost all projects require a photographer or
illustrator or both. They work with the
Graphic designer to capture important assets that will serve to illustrate the
message in the campaign. Some messages
may be better served by illustration.
This member of the team researches the details of
the product and the campaign once some consensus among members of the client
and creative team has been reached. This person’s responsibility is every word
that appears in print or is spoken in a commercial.
The team must process its tasks and this means each team
member must meet individual objectives and expectations.
Organization: Assigning Responsibilities and Matching Talent with Tasks
Learning Objectives of this class: Students will recognize the four types of management tasks
of a basic creative enterprise. They are: 1) Managing Assets and Agendas, 2)
Managing Compositional Elements, 3) Managing the Message, 4) Managing the
Process. The students will also learn the
meaning of “The Four Cs of Creative Management,” and they include Collaboration,
Credibility. The students will then move
on to the typical first-level project goals and be divided into teams
resembling creative teams one would find in a typical advertising agency or
creative firm. The objective of these teams will be to function as a creative
force to create an actual product launch.
They will be given five specific tasks designed to showcase their
problem solving abilities and creative skills. But more importantly, this class
project is designed to show the creative process in a realistic setting of
collaboration, cooperation, and consensus building.
There are four types of
management tasks in any creative enterprise:
1. Managing Assets
How to organize and manage the visual design process through assessment of
known assets, marketing objectives, client and staff agendas. The most
important responsibility, perhaps, is mediating any conflict that may arise and
moving the group toward consensus and the most effective product the team is
capable of producing.
Compositional Elements: How to create and use design software for the management of
compositional elements for maximum visual impact and clarity of information.
3. Managing the
research and assessment, craft a message, and ensure that the desired
information is effectively transferred to the reader and/or the viewer.
4. Managing the
the ad production process includes media specifications from reproduction
technologies to paper stocks, from direct marketing and display advertising to
the new media and the World Wide Web.
Managing your project well raises your credibility
Note the word managing in the above descriptions. The
success of any team or individual is dependent on your skill to manage people,
events, and the unexpected. These skills
include working well with others, stepping up and being a leader when the
opportunity presents itself, but knowing how to follow when an obviously good
leader is identified among your colleagues.
In any creative enterprise
there are critical schedules and deadlines that simply must be met. The fate of
an entire project or even the company can hang in the balance of a missed
deadline, an underestimated production schedule, or even a minor budget overage.
It all comes down to credibility. If you manage the process well, you can
compensate for difficulties or the unexpected. There is a lot of truth to the
adage, “Hope for the best but plan for the worst.” You must endeavor to give yourself some
wiggle room in the event things go badly and you may have to scramble to
The Four Cs of Creative Management
To many people, the creative
process is a mystery akin to magic.
Genius is often confused with experience and hard work. Developing a comprehensive advertising
package can be the vision of one incredibly creative genius, but the actual
work that must be applied to get ideas on paper, on television, on a shelf in a
supermarket are the result of a carefully managed team effort of several
creative people. To manage this process
on behalf of a major national brand is a monumental undertaking requiring many
skilled and creative people.
An illustration of the
management process can best be described as “The Four C’s of Creative Management.”
Think of these as four legs of a chair. Without any one of them, the chair will
ultimately fall. It may balance
precariously for a while, but no one would want to sit on it. The Four Cs are:
Collaboration: Collaboration, simply put, is getting
many head together to solve a problem or meet a challenge. No one player can
win a baseball game alone. You have to respect the input of the rest of the
players even if the ball is never hit to left field on a particular game day.
Cooperation: It is earned through a process of
mutual respect and appreciation. Many experienced project leaders like to
assemble their own teams of professionals they’ve known and worked with before.
The relationship between the client and the creative agency is always important
and should never be taken for granted.
Consensus Building: In the creative process, there needs
to be opportunities to sign off on various stages of development so that the
creative team doesn’t go too far down a road that may be a dead end. The design agreement or contract contains
built-in opportunities for consensus building called “sign-offs” or scheduled
deadlines in the production time line. These are often referred to as “project
reviews” for prototypes, ad copy, alpha and beta builds product labels,
packaging, electronic media or point-of-purchase displays. The client has
opportunities to sign off on the project at certain points and this allows the
creative team to proceed.
Credibility: This is the natural outcome if collaboration, cooperation
and consensus building are managed correctly. If any one of the four Cs is weak
or missing, credibility will be the ultimate casualty.
Do you want it cheap, good, or
fast? Pick two.
Working with clients can be very challenging. In an
ideal world, clients pick creative firms based on their perception of your
ability to deliver quality, and any costs will be well worth it. Alas, this is not an ideal world. Especially among small businesses, there is a
different reality that is more often motivated by price. Sometimes a client is testing the waters with
a design firm by handing out a small but challenging project. It may not be all
that calculated, but resulting from an emergency situation in which the client
finds himself. There is a proverbial
wisdom that takes the form of a question every account executive should ask a
new client when a situation appears acute.
“Do you want it cheap, good, or fast? Pick two!”
If you want it cheap and good, it won’t be fast. If you want it good and fast, it won’t be
cheap. If you want it cheap and fast, it
won’t be good. This strategic questioning, though it appears somewhat
frivolous, will assuredly earn you more credibility if not respect, and you
haven’t agreed to take on the project yet!
First Level Project Goals:
The class will now be
divided into companies or teams, each with an assigned goal of objective
provided by the instructor.
Each team must determine who
among them will be responsible for tasks that must be performed so the team can
reach its objective. Each team must
appoint a member to the following positions (Note: due to class size and time
frame, the instructor has combined positions and their responsibilities):
Project Manager/Production Manager
Creative Director/Graphic Designer
Responsibilities and Deliverables
The team leaders are
responsible for taking the contributions of the group and distilling them into
the most effective concept. Here are the team's project goals:
Logo design requires developing a production-ready
graphic. What is a production-ready graphic? One that is ready for target media
distribution or manufacture as in packaging or publishing.
Look and Feel: this transcends the logo design to
prototypical ads and packaging concepts. A color scheme and some texture
samples evolve from those colors used in the logo design. Target media is
selected for tests of the look and feel:
A Package Design
A Newspaper Ad
An Outdoor Sign
A Stand-Alone Point of Purchase
Display for Retail Space
A Website Splash Page
Teams must prepare a presentation
that will present their samples at a Client Project Review event to be
scheduled. Student team members will each be required to contribute to the
presentation offering their ideas and concepts.
Teams are encouraged to make use of any and all technology and resources
Learning Objectives of this class: Students have now been divided into teams that resemble
actual creative teams that one may find in a typical advertising agency or
creative firm. The teams will be given the same production assignment, and
there objective is to produce a logo, a package design, point of purchase
display, copy and a layout for a full-page newspaper ad. This hands-on
assignment is designed to encourage a team approach to problems solving and
strategic planning. It is also designed to encourage delineation of duties,
application of the best or most qualified talent for the task, and to
demonstrate, first hand, the importance of product/market research and development. The ultimate goal of the class is to conduct
formal demonstrations and presentations to the class at the conclusion of their
projects and to showcase the students’ work.
Natural Spring Water from Dubuque, Iowa
Dubuque Iowa’s water supply, long considered
among the highest quality and purest water supplies in the nation if not the
world, comes from artesian wells that were actually discovered accidentally
during the 19th century when the community was a mining
settlement. A lead mine at the foot of
Eagle Point began flooding uncontrollably, hence the mine’s owners abandoned
their mining interest and turned their mine into the first community
water quality is continually evaluated and on occasion has been entered into
competitions with other municipalities.
In the last two decades, the
modern bottled water industry has exploded in the marketplace. What really
propelled the craze of bottle water on a level comparable to the enormous US soft drink market began with the sparkling
(carbonated) mineral water craze that began by the importation to America of
Perrier from France
in the early 1980s. The virtues of Perrier water was its unique sparkling taste
and allegedly healthful mineral content. In Europe such celebrated brands as
and Perrier were common on restaurant and café tables. But when American’s
royalty, Hollywood film stars began drinking
and preferring Perrier to other beverages, a craze began. The craze didn’t die
but evolved from sparkling water to just plain and pure bottled water brands.
The way was paved for domestic water companies to carve out their share of the
The bottled water industry
actually began more than a century ago, but it only served areas of the country
that had poor quality municipal water supplies or poor tasting tap water. In 1888, George J.
Schmitt worked as a
pharmacist's assistant in the Gale and Block Drug Store, located in the Palmer
House Hotel. The pharmacy was selling spring water, and Schmitt realized that
here was a product that could be delivered directly to customers.
Otis Hinckley was, at the time, a
water delivery man for the White Rock Corporation. Hinckley
and Schmitt became partners and purchased water from White Rock for delivery to
customers. Their business rapidly expanded to include many varieties of spring
and bottled waters, along with water cooler service to offices -- an innovative
service which they pioneered.
Why is bottled water so
popular? It transcends mere convenience. There are certain implied guarantees
in bottled water that it is pure, without chemicals, and absolutely sanitary. It’s
not what’s in bottled water that makes it preferred, but what is NOT in the
beverage. In a marketplace that has become super sensitive to food additives,
pollutants finding their way into our food and water supply, and a desire for
diet and health conscious Americans to eschew sugar and calorie filled soft
drinks and alcohol, bottled water has become more popular than any category of
The bottle water industry is
highly regulated. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) categorizes
bottled water as a “packaged food product” through stringent standards for
safety, quality, production, labeling, and identity. If certification and licensing is required it
may be required on the labeling. Depending on the states in which it is bottled
and sold, there are specifications that must be published on the label. Also,
there is the Universal Product Code (UPC bars), and which states require a
cooperage or recycling deposit that can be redeemed at the beverage retailer.
Here are some websites you can consult for additional
The List of Deliverables
Each team must develop a
product name and logo that incorporates the name, Dubuque. This is the crucial look and feel
development stage of the process. You must:
1. Identify a Type Style or Type Family
2. Identify a symbol (existing or
created) will serve your brand’s identity?
3. Develop a Color Palette for all
materials developed on behalf of the brand
Once the logo is developed,
your team must apply it to a label design for plastic recyclable bottles from a
small size (20 oz) to a large (1 liter) size.
1. The labels must be applied to the
bottles to create prototypes.
2. Prototypes must be incorporated into
a marketing presentation for the class.
3. Prototypes must be created for photography
for ads, banners, posters and point-of-purchase display.
4. Your Team must create an innovative
point of purchase display.
Your team must develop an
advertising strategy for your product that includes a media mix that is both
print and web based. You have to develop copy that introduces the produce to
the consumer and promotes certain benefits your product represents. What are
the tangibles and intangibles of your product?
It’s important that your team identify those and include them in some
creative way in your copy.
1. Your responsibility is to create ad
copy for a newspaper ad
2. A Website Splash Page
3. A Point of Purchase Display
4. Any ancillary copy required on the
What makes a Graphic Design Effective? The Elements of Good Graphic Design
Learning Objectives of this class: Students will learn the seven essentials of graphic design,
and they include Research,
Layout, Grid Systems, Identity Design and Critique & Analysis
The following class content notes
are to be used with the textbook recommended for this class The Seven Essentials of Graphic Design by Allison Goodman
BOLD, ANGULAR CAPITAL
LETTERS SHOUT! while thin, curvy letters in upper-lower case whisper.
What are the five
considerations when choosing type? (Reference
Contrast doesn't just
make a design visually engaging, but it is a prime organizing factor for a
Contrast Via Shape
Contrast Via Value
Contrast Via Color
A design's layout is a
map for the viewer.
The elements of a clear
hierarchy (Refer to Chapter 4)
Invisible except to the
trained eye, grid systems are a subtle but vital part of the design process.
What is the reason for a
grid system? (Refer to Chapter 5)
Identity Design: Logo
Recognition is what every
company or organization wants. (Refer to Chapter 6)
Critique and Analysis
Critique and analysis
actually opens your eyes to infinite possibilities.
The Importance of Shape and
Texture in Layout and Design
Learning Objectives of this Class: Students learn the
importance of shape and texture in layout and design. There are 4 elements that can comprise shape
in a layout, and a variety of the 4 elements can combine to create entirely new
shapes. They include the photograph or illustration, the logo or trademark,
type elements (headlines, paragraphs, titles, and kickers), and key lines.
Students also learn the value of Texture. Texture can be applied two ways. It
can be depicted graphically as in multi-color process reproduction, or it can
actually be applied physically to a particular advertising piece through choice
of printing substrate (paper).
A good composition is an
evocative arrangement of shapes, and sometimes it can consist of a shape within
a shape, within a shape, all of which combine to direct a viewer’s attention,
evoke a mood, condition a recognition response (logos and brands).
These are the visual elements that comprise shape in a
- Photograph or Illustration
- Logo or Trademark
- Type Elements (headlines,
paragraphs, titles, and kickers)
- Key lines (borders)
What is a texture?
It is the fourth element
of design, which is defined as an object’s visual or tactile surface
characteristics and appearance… In graphic design, texture is most often used
as a secondary element to reinforce an idea, rather than as the primary element
to communicate a concept.
Some examples of how
texture is used in design:
- Special paper stocks, embossing and foil
- Solid spot color
- Intaglio or mezzotint
- Dramatic use of black and white photography
opposed to color can be interpreted as a textural element.
- In process color a texture can be simulated and
placed in the background on which other compositional elements are placed.
See the following
example on the Web to illustrate this class lecture:
Importance of Structure in Design
Learning objectives of
this class: Students will learn how to achieve structure and
balance in advertising design through the use of contrast, unity, value, color,
and the application of asymmetry.
Q: What is Design
A: Finding the appropriate
use of the elements of line, type, shape, and texture to create a strong and
Q: What are the FIVE
primary principles of structure?
Q: In composing our
design, is it our goal to achieve balance?
A: No. True balance and
symmetry lead to boredom. In a busy newspaper ad filled with two equal columns
of line items, all details of the ad’s composition blend together in one gray
shape. The viewer doesn’t want to work that hard to figure out what the
designer is trying to achieve.
Balance is all about creating mood
When things appear slightly
or especially radically out of balance, the effect evokes a variety of moods
including humor, drama and tension.
Effective advertising design
is all about contrast. Contrast can strengthen an idea.
There are several ways
to achieve contrast. Among them:
Type Size and Thickness
What many neophyte designers
fail to recognize is the effect a block of body copy has on the overall
contrast of a design.
Color and Value
Color and value is all about
effecting the right contrast among color combinations to evoke a mood.
What should you consider
when striving for contrast?
How do you achieve unity in
Through the management or
manipulation of value and color.
Q: What is value?
A: Simply put, it’s
defined as the relative lightness or darkness of an object
Value creates mood.
setting the mood, what else does value create?
A: Movement and direction
What should you consider
when using value?
Q: What does color add
to a design?
A: It adds dimension.
There are warm color and
Warm colors project while
cool colors recede.
Asymmetry (forcing a design
element out of balance) can strengthen a design. By throwing a design out of
balance you create tension.
What should you consider when striving
Advertising Refer to visuals on http://www.garyolsen.com/GoClarke/Ad_design_class/classnotes.htm#lecture8
Learning Objectives of this Class:
Students will learn the three strategic design strategies of effective
outdoor advertising. They are: 1)
Effective outdoor advertising ideas are simple 2) Outdoor Advertising must be
easy to grasp and this is best achieved through the use of high contrast, 3) Images and graphics communicate
visually more effectively than words.
A brief history of the oldest media form on earth
Outdoor Advertising is one
of the oldest advertising media in existence. Until recently, most large
pictorials were hand painted on the sides of buildings and on poster panels. Outdoor
Advertising on large strategically placed sign panels is a uniquely American
phenomenon that had its start in the 19th Century.
Before outdoor advertising
was even referred to as a media form, it was pretty much out of control, and in
some metropolitan areas, a visual nuisance. For example, as circuses came
through a town, every available space... on fences and barn sides were covered
with posters. "Bill posters" and sign painters plied their trade
until civic beautification advocates passed legislation to control them. Many
fences and buildings contained the words "Post No Bills" meaning “no
posters or signage allowed.”
Circus impresario, P.T.
Barnum, in the 19th Century, literally invented the modern American
outdoor advertising industry. As soon as
railroads made it possible to take his Great American
Museum show on the road,
Barnum had built specially equipped rail cars on which imprinting machines were
installed. The “advance men” would ride the rails a few days ahead of the
actual circus train to cover an intended stop with posters. A team of bill
posters, armed with brushes, buckets of paste, and rolls of circus posters,
would cover every barn, board fence and building wall they could, seldom asking
permission. If a bill poster met opposition, a nominal bribe would quiet the
property owner. As time and the circus marched on, the bill posters became
despised by city fathers for unsightly and deteriorating posters they left in
their wakes, so cities began passing ordinances forbidding unlicensed bill
posting. However, some enterprising towns provided special bill posting areas
and charged for the privilege of posting signs. Eventually, local companies saw
the opportunity to sell advertising space to local businesses and work
effectively within the regulations.
Outdoor Advertising became a
legitimate media form as the nation discovered the automobile. Suddenly,
roadways became prime real estate for advertising. The industry grew steadily
as the nation became laced with highways. In the 1950s and ‘60s, highway
beautification legislation became popular in an attempt to regulate what
critics called “the visual pollution” of outdoor signage. What this effectively
did in some communities was legislate outdoor advertising out of existence. In
several markets, where outdoor advertising was represented by strong and
influential owners, like Ted Turner’s father in Atlanta, Georgia,
outdoor prospered in growing industrial and commercial areas of cities and
Today, outdoor advertising
is a highly regulated industry. There are zoning laws which contain billboards
in industrial and commercial areas. Actually this is good for outdoor
advertisers because it puts their message right in the marketplace where people
are shopping and commuting.
Today, outdoor advertising
has become even more dynamic a media with the application of computer graphic
technology. Instead of signs being painted by hand, or screen printed by
section, they are painted by computer using a process similar to a giant ink
jet printer. Designs are often spectacular in scope with or protruding
extensions that break the rectangular frame.
On relationships with
Most clients are risk averse
when it comes to any form of advertising, but particularly outdoor. There’s
something about seeing your brand on an outdoor sign that’s 48 feet long and 14
feet high that inspires thrills or dread. Some of the best ideas in outdoor
advertising are by nature risky.
A local designer and outdoor
specialist once confided to a class of ours, "I designed this fantastic
board with a giant screw. The caption was something to the effect 'Remember
your last car deal?' It didn't sell the client."
Often a client that may be an
outdoor advertising neophyte wants to put too much detail on a board which
cannot be read when driving by at 60 mph.
The best advertising designs
work on an emotional level. That's what all advertising has to do, but
Outdoor advertising design
Less is more in outdoor
advertising. It's not what you put in a composition. It's what you take away.
It should be a goal that you
find the essence of a product. Often you don't even have to show the product to
convey the message. One of the best samples was illustrated on a video
which Kathy brought to class. On that video, a designer was describing the
"Got Milk?" campaign for the American Dairy Association. The boards
showed a giant cookie with a bite out of it and the message... "Got
Milk?" Another board showed a pair of Hostess Cupcakes with a bite out of
one and the trademark icing on top spelled the words, "Got Milk?"
This campaign was deemed one of the most effective campaigns even though
it never actually showed the product.
On the three objectives
of outdoor advertising:
1. Get attention
with a simple idea.
This means think visually. Do in
picture rather than words.
2. Be Provocative by
either warming their hearts, shocking them, or making them laugh. Evocative images that make people
smile or laugh are effective because they are memorable. Making people feel good is not a bad objective in
creating memorable advertising.
3. It’s Brand
your message is in the marketplace. Outdoor advertising is often referred to as marketplace advertising. This means it’s
seen where people drive, shop, eat,
and go about their business. Your objective is to inspire recall of a
particular brand name as that customer is shopping or searching for a restaurant
because she just saw the sign and she’s hungry. Outdoor advertising is an
important part of a total advertising or marketing mix. Often, outdoor
advertising coordinates with print, radio and television
On rules or no rules:
It depends on the designer
you're talking to, because some say there are no rules while others say there
are rules but they are made to be broken.
There are good practices,
1. Simple, easy to
2. Contrast: Bold black type against a white
background is the ultimate contrast, but there are a lot of color combinations
that can work. It's important that you work with color and value to maximize
contrast for the best legibility.
3. Images or
graphics communicate visually often better than words.
It's best to tell writers
"forget you're a writer." Think visually.
How to Start a Print Advertising Project
Learning objectives of this class: Students learn the 20 Step Process
of Discovery and how to apply what they learn during the discovery process to
designing a print advertising project. Students will also learn the 10 Steps to
Drawing up a Design Document.
How I Start Designing an Ad (step-by-step) by
I've taken note at how you
manage (or don't manage) the design process. In the real world of there just is
too much at stake and too many risks involved in not being productive and
effective. This requires a combination of management skills as well as artistic
talents which must be blended in a way as to leverage the talent, get the best
results possible and maintain control over costs, schedules and the
relationship with the client.
So I created this annotated
checklist that can be followed in sequence when beginning the design process.
Of course this list is based on a first time encounter with the client. When
you receive the opportunity to design an ad campaign, what are the first things
you should do. What questions should you ask:
What's the Target Publication?
What are their ad specifications?
Color(s)? Will I use four color, one color, spot
color, black and white?
format files do they prefer?
are my marketing objectives?
is the client's agenda?
will we be working with?
do we want this ad to accomplish?
Phone call to a closer?
are the assets of this campaign?
they available digitally?
additional photography or illustration may need to take place for this ad
Is there an established slogan or tag line?
Is there a specific type style associated with any
design or legacy element in the ad?
Where’s the Ad Portfolio of past work on this
What other media projects have been executed for
When is my drop dead date?
When is the publication deadline?
Who is the contact person at the media company we
must deal with?
Can we see a proof of the ad before it runs?
Ten Steps to Preparing a Design Document
A design document is a detailed agreement containing the concept
treatment (description of the project), list of deliverables, design and
production schedule, budget, and client contract.
you can begin to draw up a master production schedule with intermediate deadlines
as project milestones.
with the ultimate deadline and work backwards
the first Brainstorming Session with staff.
this Brainstorming Session, we will determine the treatment with a one or more
of our best ideas from this session.
up a design document which outlines the project from concept through production
it must contain:
Treatment: This is a one paragraph statement of the
campaign's goals with the best idea(s) proffered by the Staff Brainstorming
Production Schedule and Deadlines
Sample thumbnail sketches based on the treatment
A Schedule of all Associated Costs of Production
Copy of the Contract
Establish the Budget and an estimate of costs
associated with design and production.
Draw up Contract to be attached to the design
Present the contract and design document to the
client at the formal design document presentation.
Get the Contract signed.
Begin Design and Production
Production Steps Critical to the Success of any Project
In managing your design, there are three important things you need to know before you can begin the design process.
1) What are the PMS colors that are specified for this logo, package design, poster or advertisement? Provide Pantone Matching System Color Chips (PMS).
2) Size: What size must your design be to accomodate target applications from business cards on up to outdoor signs or the side of a mass transit bus?
3) Applications -- What Are They? Embroidery? Screen Printing? Offset Printing, Pad Printing?
In moviing your project from the Design to the Production Stage there are three important considerations to ensure success. In this critical step, the process is akin to raising a child and then sending that child into the world. At some point you must depend on and trust the skills and instincts of other trained professionals.
1) Relationships: To ensure success, it's important that you develop a communication with the printer, publisher, manufacturer, embroiderer, or screen printer. This relationship will provide you with details that could be critical to the success of this project and all future projects that run through this professional service.
2) File Compatibility: The number one problem reported by printers, screen printers, large print vendors, and embroiders is customers turning in electronic files that are incorrectly specified, improperly formatted, incorrectly sized, and generally unreadable or incompatible with the design software or platform the printer is using.
3) Transportation: Welcome to the world of large files that must be handled in special ways. Most cannot be attached to e-mail because the files are simply to large. However, files can be posted or transferred via an Internet Website or FTP site.